Cephs Science History

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Octopus-research at the Stazione Zoologica

(1873 – 1964)

by Ariane Dröscher 

Selected bibliography on some aspects of research on Octopus biology and physiology carried out at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn di Napoli (Italy) from 1873 to 1964. Here are considered:

  1. The catching of Octopus
  2. Breeding and handling of octopi in tanks and acquariums
  3. Parasites of Octopus
  4. Systematics and phylogenesis
  5. Embryology and developmental biology
  6. Reproduction and anatomy of the genitals
  7. General anatomy
  8. General physiology
  9. Anatomy, physiology and innervation of the chromatophores
  10. Vision, and anatomy and physiology of the eye
  11. Anatomy and physiology of the statocysts
  12. Anatomy and physiology of the organs of smell
  13. Anatomy and physiology of the organs of the tactile sense
  14. Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
  15. Memory, behaviour and ethology
  16. Anatomy and physiology of the muscles
  17. Digestion, blood and metabolism
  18. Octopus’s poison
  19. Biochemical studies on Octopus (general)

Almost all the cited books and papers are collected in the SZ library

 

 


1. The catching of Octopus

1888 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
(first basic notions also about the Neapolitan Octopus)
 
1909 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. 3rd edition. Mitteil. Zool. Stat. Neapel 19: 513-761.
(considerably enlarged)
 
1932 - Santarelli Mario: La pesca del polpo (Octopus vulgaris) nel golfo di Napoli. Bulletin de l'Institut Ocèanographique 597: 1-6.
(how Neapolitan fishers catch octopuses)
 

 2. Breeding and handling of octopi in tanks and acquariums

1928 - Grimpe Georg: Pflege, Behandlung und Zucht der Cephalopoden für zoologische und physiologische Zwecke. In: Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden, hg. von Emil Abderhalden. Berlin, Wien (Verlag Urban & Schwarzenberg), p. 331-402.
(instructions how to transform Octopus into a research object)
 

 3. Parasites of Octopus

1881 - Föttinger Alexandre: Un mot sur quelques infusoires nouveaux, parasites des céphalopodes. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. s.3/v.1, 1-8.
 
1882 - Föttinger Alexandre: Recerches sur quelques infusoires nouveaux, parasites des céphalopodes. Archives de Biologie 2, 345-378.
 

4. Systematics and phylogenesis

1874 - Kollmann J.: Die Cephalopoden der Zoologischen Station des Dr. Dohrn. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 26, 1-23.
 
1880a - Brock Johannes: Studien über die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der dibranchiaten Cephalopoden. Dissertation. Erlangen.
 
1880b - Brock Johannes: Versuch einer Phylogenie der dibranchiaten Cephalopoden. Inauguraldissertation. Leipzig (Wilhelm Engelmann).
(also: Morph. Jahrb. 6, 1880: 185-296)
 
1880 - Tiberi Nicola: Cefalopodi, pteropodi, eteropodi viventi nel Meditterraneo e fossili nel terreno terziario italiano con aggiunte e correzioni. Bull. Soc. Malacol. It. 6, 1-49.
 
1887 - Brock Johannes: Zur Systematik der Cephalopoden. Nachr. Kgl. Gesell. Wiss. Göttingen 17, 317-322.
 
1889 - Jatta Giuseppe: Elenco dei cefalopodi della "Vettor-Pisani". Boll. Soc. Natural. Napoli 3, 64-68.
(excursion report)
 
1896 - Jatta Giuseppe: I cefalopodi viventi nel Golfo di Napoli (Sistematica). (Flora und Fauna des Golfes von Neapel No. 23) Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
 
1916 - Naef Adolf: Systematische Übersicht der mediterranen Cephalopoden. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 1, 11-20.
(announces his seminal work of 1923)
 
1923 - Naef Adolf: Die Cephalopoden (Flora und Fauna des Golfes von Neapel, No. 35). 1.Band: Systematik, Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
(for many years the classical monograph on cephalopods, part 1)
 

5. Embryology and developmental biology

1875 - Lankester Ray: Observations on the development of the Cephalopoda. Quart. J. Micr. Sci. 15, 37-46.
 
1910 - Naef Adolf: Zur vergleichen Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Blutgefäßsystems der Cephalopoden. Zool. Anz. 36, 316-323.
(anatomy and embryology of the blood vessel system)
 
1928 - Naef Adolf: Die Cephalopoden. (Flora und Fauna des Golfes von Neapel, No. 35) 2.Band: Embryologie, Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
(for many years the classical monograph on cephalopods, part 2)
 
1962a - Fioroni Pio: Die embryonale Entwicklung der Kölliker'schen Organe von Octopus vulgaris Lam. Rev. suisse Zool. 69, 467-511.
 
1962b - Fioroni Pio: Die embryonale Entwicklung der Hautdrüsen und des Trichterorgans von Octopus vulgaris Lam. Acta Anat. 50, 1962: 264-295.
 

 6. Reproduction and anatomy of the genitals

1878 - Brock Johannes: Ueber die Geschlechtsorgane der dibranchiaten Cephalopoden. Situngsber. physik.-med. Soc. Erlangen, 1-6.
 
1888 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
(first basic notions on maturation including the Neapolitan Octopus)
 
1909 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. 3rd edition. Mitteil. Zool. Stat. Neapel 19, 513-761.
(as 1888 but considerably enlarged)
 
1903a - Bergmann Wolfgang: Über ein Receptaculum seminis bei Octopus de filippii und einige biologische Untersuchungen. Sitzungsber. Gesell. naturforsch. Freunde 2, 104-109.
 
1903b - Bergmann Wolfgang: Über den Bau des Ovariums bei Cepahlopoden und einige Nachträge zur Eibildung derselben. Archiv f. Naturgeschichte 1, 227-240.
 
1906 - Marchand Werner: Beitrag zur vergleichenden Anatomie des männlichen Geschlechtsapparates der Cephalopoden. Zool. Anz. 29, 753-758.
 
1907a - Marchand Werner: Studien über Cephalopoden. I. Der männliche Leitungsapparat der Dibranchiaten. Inauguraldissertation. Leipzig (Verlag Wilhelm Engelmann).
 
1907b - Marchand Werner: Studien über Cephalopoden. I. Der männliche Leitungsapparat der Dibranchiaten. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 86, 311-415.
 
1912 - Marchand Werner: Studien über Cephalopoden. II. Über die Spermatophoren. Zoologica 67, 171-200.
 
1929a - Belonschkin Boris: Die Geschlechtswege von Octopus vulgaris und ihre Bedeutung für die Bewegung der Spermatozoen. Zeitschr. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 9, 643-662.
 
1929b - Belonschkin Boris: Verhalten der Spermatozoen zwischen Begattung und Befruchtung bei Octopus vulgaris. Zeitschr. Zellforsch. mikrosk. Anat. 9, 750-753.
 
1940 - Callan Harold Garnett: The absence of a sex-hormone controlling regeneration of the hectocotylus in Octopus vulgaris Lam. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 18, 15-19.
 
1959 - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: Hormonal control of sexual maturity in Octopus. J. Exp. Biol. 36, 1-33.
 
1960 - Wells Martin John: Optic glands and the ovary of Octopus. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 2, 87-107.
 

 7. General anatomy

1893 - Jatta Giuseppe: Sopra l'organo dell'imbuto nei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli 7, 45-60.
 
1896 - Jatta Giuseppe: I cefalopodi viventi nel Golfo di Napoli (Sistematica). (Flora und Fauna des Golfes von Neapel No. 23) Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
 
1910 - Naef Adolf: Zur vergleichen Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Blutgefäßsystems der Cephalopoden. Zool. Anz. 36, 316-323.
 
1923 - Naef Adolf: Die Cephalopoden. (Flora und Fauna des Golfes von Neapel, No. 35) 1.Band: Systematik, Berlin (Verlag R. Friedländer & Sohn).
(for many years the classical monograph on cephalopods, part 1)
 
1959 - Young John Zachary: Squids, cuttlefishes and octopuses. Proc. Roy. Instn. 37, 394-411.
 

8. General physiology

1909 - Bauer Victor: Einführung in die Physiologie der Cephalopoden. Mitteil. Zool. Stat. Neapel 19, 149-268.
 
1928 - Sereni Enrico: Correlazioni umorali nei cefalopodi. J. Physiol. 90, 512.
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Metodi per la circolazione crociata nei cefalopodi. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 9, 293-298.
 

9. Anatomy, physiology and innervation of the chromatophores

1900a - Rabl Hans: Über die Chromatophoren der Cephalopoden. Verhandl. Dt. Zool. Gesell., 98-107.
 
1900b - Rabl Hans: Über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Chromatophoren der Cephalopoden, nebst allgemeinen Bemerkungen über die Haut dieser Thiere. Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 109, 3-64.
(anatomy and embryology of the skin and of cromatophores)
 
1910a - Hofmann Franz Bruno: Chemische Reizung und Lähmung markloser Nerven und glatter Muskeln wirbelloser Tiere. Untersuchungen an den Chromatophoren der Kephalopoden. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 132, 82-130.
 
1910b - Hofmann Franz Bruno: Gibt es in der Muskulatur der Mollusken periphere, kontinuierlich leitende Nervennetze bei Abwesenheit von Ganglienzellen? II. Mitteilung. Weitere Untersuchungen an den Chromatophoren der Kephalopoden. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 132, 43-81.
 
1911 - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm: Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 7. Über den Tonus der Cephalopodenchromatophoren und seine Hemmung. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 11, 99-106.
(part of an extensive study on O.'s nervous system)
 
1927a - Sereni Enrico: Ricerche sui cromatofori dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 2, 377-381.
 
1927b - Sereni Enrico: Ulteriori ricerche sui cromatofori dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 2, 667-670.
 
1928 - Sereni Enrico: Sui cromatofori dei cefalopodi. I. Azione di alcuni veleni in vivo. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 8, 488-600.
 
1928 - Ten-Cate Jasper: Contribution à la question de l'innervation des chromatophores chez Octopus vulgaris. Archives Néerlandaises de Physiol. de l'Homme et des Animaux 12, 568-598.
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Sui cromatofori dei cefalopodi. II. Azione della beatina e della arcolina. Arch. Farmacol. Sperim. 47, 1-12.
 
1930 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbensinn und Anpassung der Körperfarbe an die Umgebung bei Tintenfischen. Nachr. Gesell. Wiss. Göttingen. Math.phys. Kl. 1-9.
(develops a new method (based on punishment) to train O. to differentiate between different colors; concludes that O. is able to distinguish colors)
 
1930a - Sereni Enrico: Sui cromatofori dei cefalopodi. III. Azione di alcuni veleni in vitro. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 11.
 
1930b - Sereni Enrico: The chromatophores of the cephalopods. Biol. Bull. 59, 247-268.
 
1931 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel: Action des ions potassium sur la musculature des chromatophores des Céphalopodes. Compt. rend. séances Soc. Biol. 111, 220-222.
 
1950 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbwechsel und Farbensinn von Cephalopoden. Zeitschr.vergl. Physiol. 32, 572-598.
(color vision and color change)
 
1953 - Boycott Brian B.: The chromatophore system of cephalopods. Proc. Linn. Soc. London 164, 235-240.
 
1958 - Kahr H.: Die Bedeutung des Serotonins für die Melanophorenreaktion des Octopus vulgaris. Naturwiss. 45, 243.
 
1959 - Kahr H.: Zur endokrinen Steuerung der Melanophorenreaktion bei Octopus vulgaris. Zeitschr. vgl. Physiol. 41, 435-448.
 

 10. Vision, and anatomy and physiology of the eye

1884 - Grenacher Hermann: Abhandlungen zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Auges. I. Die Retina der Cephalopoden. Abhandl. Naturforsch. Gesell. Halle 16, 1-50.
(also: Halle a.S. (Max Niemeyer) 1884)
(shows that O's retina is not like those of vertebrats, and that O.'s rhabdomes are quadratic like those of arthropods)
 
1891a - Rawitz Bernhard: Zur Physiologie der Cephalopodenretina. Arch. Anat. Physiol. 367-372.
 
1891b - Rawitz Bernhard: Über Pigmentverschiebungen im Cephalopodenauge. Zool. Anz. 14, 157-158.
(shows that a cephalopod which has been long in the dark possesses only one pigment layer; when exposed to light the pigment granules migrate to form the inner pigment layer; during dark adaptions an opposite migration takes place)
 
1894 - Lenhossek Michael von: Zur Kenntnis der Netzhaut der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 58, 636-660.
(discovers the spindle region, and shows that cephalopod retina contains a screening pigment at the proximal end of the receptors)
 
1896 - Lenhossek Michael von: Histologische Untersuchungen am Sehlappen der Cephalopoden. Arch. mikrosk. Anat. 47, 45-120.
 
1897 - Beer Theodor: Die Akkomodation des Kephalopodenauge. Arch. f .d. gesamte Physiol. 67, 541-586.
 
1902 - Magnus Rudolph: Die Pupillarreaktion von Oktopoden. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 92, 623-643.
(the first study on the localisation of the pupillar relflex; shows that in the central ganglia exist different centers for the opening and forclosing of the eyes; hence, the reflex is not spontaneous)
 
1904 - Muskens L.J.J.: Ueber eine eigentümliche compensatorische Augenbewegung der Oktopoden, it Bemerkungen über deren Zwangsbewegung. Arch. Anat. Physiol. 40-56.
(shows that statocysts are necessary for an equilibrated orientation and a proper compensatory eye movement )
 
1905 - Hess Carl von: Beiträge zur Physiologie und Anatomie des Cephalopodenauges. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 109, 393-439.
(one of the most eminent ophtalmologists of his time)
 
1909 - Hess Carl von: Die Accomodation der Cephalopods. Arch. Augenheilk. 64 (Ergänzungsheft), 125-151.
( part of the first systematic attempt to study "how marine animals see")
 
1913 - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm: Beiträge zur allgemeinen Physiologie der Sinnesorgane. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 18, 28-164.
(the first reliable electroretinogram (ERG)!; concludes that Octopus is capable to distinguish between red, yellow, green and blue)
 
1914 - Polimanti Osvaldo: Sopra il senso cromatico di Octopus vulgaris Lam. Ricercato per mezzo di reazioni nel ritmo respiratorio. Annali Fac. Med. Univ. Perugia 5, 1-10.
(also: Arch. it. biol. 64, 1914: 293-300)
 
1926 - Bierens de Haan Johannes Abraham: Versuche über den Farbensinn und das psychische Leben von Octopus vulgaris. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 4, 766-796.
(one of the main Dutch ethologists; fails to train Octopus to give different responses to different colors, but does not exclude that they are able to distinguish colors )
 
1927 - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Contribution à l'étude des muscles, des nerfs et du mécanisme de l'accommodation de l'oeil des Céphalopodes. Arch. Zool. expér. gen. 66, 71-134.
(histology of O.'s eye)
 
1928 - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Sur la fonction des muscles intrinsèques de l'oiel des Céphalopodes. Compt. rend. séan. Soc. Biol. 99, 1161-1163.
(physiology of O.'s eye)
 
1928 - Heidermanns Curt: Messende Untersuchungen über das Formensehen der Cephalopoden und ihre optische Orientierung im Raume. Zool. Jahrb. 45, 609-650.
(shape vision and orientation)
 
1930 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbensinn und Anpassung der Körperfarbe an die Umgebung bei Tintenfischen. Nachr. Gesell. Wiss. Göttingen. Math.phys. Kl. 1-9.
(develops a new method (based on punishment) to train O. to differentiate between different colors; concludes that O. is able to distinguish colors)
 
1936 - Weel P.B. van and Sven Thore: Über die Pupillarreaktion Octopus vulgaris. Zeitschr. vergl .Physiol. 23, 26-33.
(partial revision of Magnus' study on the pupillar reflex)
 
1938 - Ten Cate Jasper and B. Ten Cate-Kazeewa: Les Octopus vulgaris peuvent-ils discerner les formes? Archives néerland. de Physiol. de l'homme e des animaux 23, 541-551.
(shape discrimination)
 
1949 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbwechsel und Farbensinn von Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 32, 572-598.
(color vision and color change)
 
1952 - De Vincentiis Mario: Il ricambio della retina nei teleostei (Scorpaena Scrofa) e nei cefalopodi (Octopus vulgaris). Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 23, 215-223.
(comparative study on the biochemistry of the retina)
 
1954 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Figural after-effects, retinal size, and apparent size. Quart. J. exp. Psych. 6, 35-44.
 
1956 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: The subpedunculate body and nerve and other organs with the optic tract of cephalopods. In: Bertil Hanstrom zoological papers in honour of his sixty-fifth birthday. Lund (Zoological Institute) 76-102.
 
1956 - Young John Zachary: Visual responses by Octopus to crabs and other figuers before and after training. J. exp. Biol. 33, 709-729.
 
1957 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: Effects of interference with the vertical lobe on visual discrimination in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. Proc. Roy. Soc. 146, 1-13.
 
1957 - Dodwell Peter C.: Shape discrimination in the octopus and the rat. Nature 179(4569), 1088.
 
1957 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination of orientation and shape by Octopus. Nature 179, 11-13.
(also: Brit. J. Psych. 48, 1957: 55-71)
 
1957 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination in the Octopus. Nature 179, 1310.
 
1958 - Brown Paul K. and Patricia S. Brown: Visual pigments of the octopuses and of cuttlefish. Nature 182(4645), 1288-1290.
 
1958 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination of the orientation of rectangles by Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. J. comp. physiol. Psych. 51, 452-458.
 
1958 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination of shape by Octopus. Square and triangles. Quart. J. exp. Psychol. 10, 40-47.
 
1958 - Wolken Jerome J.: The retinal structure of Octopus and Sepia. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cyt. 4, 835-838.
 
1958 - Young John Zachary: Effect of removal of various amounts of the vertical lobes on visual discrimination by Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 149, 441-462.
 
1958 - Young John Zachary: Responses of untrained octopuses to various figures and the effect of removal of the vertical lobe. Proc. Roy. Soc. 149, 463-483.
 
1959 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: A test of a theory of shape discrimination in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. J. comp. physiol. Psych. 52, 135-141.
 
1959 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination of shape by Octopus. Circles and squares and circles and rectangles. Quart. J. exp. Psychol. 11, 24-32.
 
1959 - Sutherland Norman Stuart and William R.A. Muntz: Simultaneous discrimination training and preferred directions of motion in visual discrimination of shape in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 31, 109-126.
 
1960 - Moody M.F. and Robertson, J.D.: The fine structure of some retinal photoreceptors. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 7(1), 87-92.
 
1960 - Moody M.F. and Parriss J.: Discrimination of polarised light by Octopus. Nature 186 (11 June), 839-840.
(discovery of the P-vision in octopuses)
 
1960 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: The visual discrimination of orientation by Octopus: Mirror images. Brit. J. Psychol. 51, 9-18.
 
1960 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Theories of shape discrimination in Octopus. Nature 186, 840-844.
 
1960 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: The visual discrimination of shape by Octopus: Squares and rectangles. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 53, 95-103.
 
1960 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual discrimination of shape by Octopus: open and closed forms. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 53, 104-112.
 
1960 - Wells Martin John: Proprioception and visual discrimination of orientation in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 37, 489-499.
 
1960 - Wells Martin John: Optic glands and the ovary of Octopus. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 2, 87-107.
(proves that a correct functioning of the eyes is indispensable for a correct functioning of the hormonal glands)
 
1960 - Young John Zachary: The visual system of Octopus: Regularities in the retina and optic lobes of Octopus in relation to form discrimination. Nature 186, 836-839.
 
1961 - Dodwell Peter C. and Norman Stuart Sutherland: Facts and theories of shape discrimination. Nature 191, 578-583.
 
1961 - Moody M.F. and J. Parriss: Discrimination of polarised light by Octopus. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 44, 268-291.
 
1961a - Muntz William R.A.: Interocular transfer in Octopus vulgaris. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 54, 49-55.
 
1961b - Muntz William R.A.: The function of the vertical lobe system of Octopus in interocular transfer. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 54, 186-190.
 
1961c - Muntz William R.A.: Interocular transfer in Octopus vulgaris; bilaterality of the engram. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 54, 192-195.
 
1961 - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Figural after-effects and apparent size. Quart. J. exp. Psych. 13, 222-228.
 
1961 - Lettvin Jerome Ysraoel and Humberto R. Maturana: Vision in Octopus. In: McCulloch Warren S., Verbeek L.A.M., Arbib M.A., Gesteland R.C., Pitts Walter H., Maturana Humberto R., Lettvin Jerome Y.: Neuropysiology. RLE Progress Report 61, pp. 194-209.
(unpublished report of their Octopus studies carried out at Naples)
 
1961 - Lettvin Jerome Ysraoel: Statocysts of Octopus. In: McCulloch Warren S., Verbeek L.A.M., Arbib M.A., Gesteland R.C., Pitts Walter H., Maturana Humberto R., Lettvin Jerome Y.: Neuropysiology. RLE Progress Report 61, pp. 210-214.
(unpublished report of their Octopus studies carried out at Naples)
 
1961 - Wells Martin John: What Octopus makes of it; our world from another point of view. Advancem. in Science, 462-471.
 
1962 - Moody M.F.: Evidence for the intraocular discrimination of vertically and horizontally polarized light by Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 39, 21-30.
 
1962 - Muntz, William R.A.: Stimulus generalization following monocular training in Octopus. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 55, 535-540.
 
1962 - Young John Zachary: The retina of cephalopods and its degenerations after optic nerve section. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 245, 1-58.
 
1963 - Dilly Peter N., E.G. Gray and John Zachary Young: Electron microscopy of optic nerves and optic lobes of Octopus and Eledone. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, B Biol. Sci. 158, 446-456.
 
1963 - Mackintosh Nicholas John, J. Mackintosh and Norman Stuart Sutherland: The relative importance of horizontal and vertical extents in shape discrimination by Octopus. Animal Behav. 11, 335-358.
 
1963 - Rhodes J.M.: Simultaneous discrimination in Octopus. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 33, 83-91.
(first attempt to mechanize simultaneous discrimination training for O.)
 
1963a - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Shape discrimination and receptive fields. Nature 197, 118-122.
 
1963b - Sutherland Norman Stuart: Visual acuity and discrimination of stripe width in Octopus vulgaris Lam. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli, 92-109.
 
1963 - Sutherland Norman Stuart and A.E. Carr: The visual discrimination of shape by Octopus: The effects of stimulus size. Quart. J. exp. Psychol. 15(4), 225-235.
 
1963 - Sutherland Norman Stuart, Nicholas John Mackintosh and J. Mackintosh: Simultaneous training in Octopus and transfer of discrimination along a continuum. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 56, 150-156.
 
1963 - Sutherland Norman Stuart, J. Mackintosh and Nicholas John Mackintosh: The visual discrimination of reduplicated patterns by Octopus. Animal Behav. 11, 106-110.
 
1963 - Wells Martin John: The orientation of Octopus. Ergeb. Biol. 26, 40-56.
 
1965 - Boycott Brian B., Jerome Y. Lettvin, Humberto R. Maturana, and P.D. Wall: Octopus optic responses. Exp. Neurol. 12(3), 247-256.
 

 11. Anatomy and physiology of the statocysts

1903 - Hamlyn-Harris Ronald: Die Statocysten der Cephalopoden. Zool. Jahrb. 18: 327-358.
 
1904 - Fröhlich Alfred: Studien über die Statocysten. Erste Mittheilung. Versuche an Cephalopoden und Einschlägiges aus der menschlichen Pathologie. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 102: 415-472.
 
1959 - Amoore John E., Kathleen Rodgers and John Zachary Young: Natrium and sodium in the endolymph and perilymph of the statocysts in the eye of Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 36: 709-714.
 
1959 - Dijkgraaf Sven: Kompensatorische Kopfbewegung bei Aktivdrehung der Tintenfische. Naturwiss. 46: 611.
 
1960 - Boycott Brian B.: The function of the statocysts of Octopus vulgaris. Proc. Roy. Soc. 152: 78-87.
 
1960 - Hubbard S. J.: Hearing and the Octopus statocyst. J. exp. Biol. 37: 845-853.
 
1960 - Young John Zachary: The statocysts of Octopus vulgaris. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 152: 3-29.
(on the function and importance of the statocysts for the stabilisation of the visual image)
 
1961 - Dijkgraaf Sven: The statocyst of Octopus vulgaris as a rotation receptor. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 32: 64-87.
 
1962 - Dijkgraaf Sven: Rotationssinn von Octopus vulgaris. Wiss. Film, 3-8, Abb.4.
 
1963 - Maldonado Hector and S. Sperling: Unidirectional response to angular acceleration recorded from the middle cristal nerve in the statocyst of Octopus vulgaris. Nature 197: 815-816.
 

 12. Anatomy and physiology of the organs of smell

1908 - Watkinson Grace B.: Untersuchungen über den sogenannten Geruchsapparat der Cephalopoden. Jenaische Ztschr. Naturwiss. 44: 353-414.
 
1909a - Baglioni Silvestro: Zur Kenntnis der Leistungen einiger Sinnesorgane (Gesichtssinn, Tastsinn und Geruchssinn) und des Zentralnervensystems der Zephalopoden und Fische. Zeitschr. Biol. 53: 255-286.
 
1909b - Baglioni Silvestro: Zur Physiologie des Geruchssinnes und des Tastsinnes der Seetiere. Versuche an Octopus und einigen Fischen. Zentralbl. Physiol. 22: 1-5.
 

13. Anatomy and physiology of the organs of the tactile sense

1909a - Baglioni Silvestro: Zur Kenntnis der Leistungen einiger Sinnesorgane (Gesichtssinn, Tastsinn und Geruchssinn) und des Zentralnervensystems der Zephalopoden und Fische. Zeitschr. Biol. 53: 255-286.
 
1909b - Baglioni Silvestro: Zur Physiologie des Geruchssinnes und des Tastsinnes der Seetiere. Versuche an Octopus und einigen Fischen. Zentralbl. Physiol. 22: 1-5.
 
1957a - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The function of the brain of Octopus in tactile discrimination. J. exp. Biol. 34: 131-142.
 
1957b - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The effect of lesions to the vertical and optic lobes on tactile discrimination in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 34: 378-393.
 
1959 - Wells Martin John: A touch-learning centre in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 36: 590-612.
 
1963 - Rowell C.H. Fraser: Excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the arm of Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 40: 257-270.
 
1965 - Wells Martin John, N.J. Freeman and Michael Ashburner: Some experiments on the chemotactile sense of octopuses. J. exp. Biol. 43: 553-563.
 
1966 - Rowell C.H. Fraser: Activity of interneurones in the arm of Octopus in response to tactile stimulation. J. exp. Biol. 44: 589-605.
 

 14. Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system 

1887a - Jatta Giuseppe: La vera origine del nervo olfattivo nei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli 1, 1-2.
(on the olfactive nerve)
 
1887b - Jatta Giuseppe: Sopra il così detto ganglio olfattivo dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli 1, 30-33
 (on the olfactive ganglion)

1988 - Pelsener Paul: Sur la valeur morfologique des bras et la composition du système nerveux central des céphalopodes. Arch. de Biol. 8, 723-756.
 
1889 - Jatta Giuseppe: La innervazione delle braccia dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli 3, 130-132.
(on the innervation of O.’s arms)
 
1894 - Fuchs Sigmund: Über den zeitlichen Verlauf des Erregungsvorganges in marklosen Nerven. Sitzgs.ber. kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 103, 1-84.
(temporal sequence of nerve conduction)
 
1899 - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche fisiologiche sul sistema nervoso viscerale delle Aplisie e di alcuni cefalopodi. Riv. Scien. Biol. 1, 1-86.
 
1908 - Burian Richard: Methodische Bemerkungen über Nervmuskelpräparate von Octopoden. Zeitschr. Biol. Techn. 1, 136-145.
 
1910a -  Hofmann Franz Bruno: Gibt es in der Muskulatur der Mollusken periphere, kontinuierlich leitende Nervennetze bei Abwesenheit von Ganglienzellen? II. Mitteilung. Weitere Untersuchungen an den Chromatophoren der Kephalopoden. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 132, 43-81.
 
1910b - Hofmann Franz Bruno: Chemische Reizung und Lähmung markloser Nerven und glatter Muskeln wirbelloser Tiere. Untersuchungen an den Chromatophoren der Kephalopoden. Arch. f. d. gesamte Physiol. 132, 82-130. 
 
1910a - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm:  Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 1. Das Mantelorgan der Cephalopoden als Reflexorgan. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 10, 384-390.
(first of a series of about 20 papers on different molluscs; fundamental study on the anatomy and physiology of cephalopod nervous system)
 
1910b - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm: Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 2. Die Irreziprozität der Erregungsleitung im Mantelganglion der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 10, 391-395. 
 
1910c - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm: Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 3. Das Sauerstoffbedürfnis des Nervensystems der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 10, 396-417. 
 
1910d - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm: Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 4. Die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit der Erregung durch das mantelganglion der Cephalopoden und seiner Nerven. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 10, 418-430.
 
1910e - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm:  Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 5. Summation, “scheinbare Bahngeschwindigkeit”, Tonus und Hemmung. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 10, 436-466.
 
1911a - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm:  Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 6. Die Bedeutung des Strychnins und der Karbonsäure für die Differenzierung verschiedener Mechanismen im nervensystem. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 11, 94-98. 
 
1911b - Fröhlich Friedrich Wilhelm:  Experimentelle Studien am Nervensystem der Mollusken. 8. Über den Einfluß der Abkühlung, Kohlensäure und Narkose auf das Mantelganglion der Cephalopoden und seiner Nerven. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 11, 107-114.
 
1912 - Polimanti Osvaldo: Contributi alla fisiologia del sistema nervoso centrale e  del movimento negli animali inferiori. 4. Cefalopodi. Intern. Monatsschr. Anat. Physiol. 29, 70-149.
 
1928 - Ten Cate JasperContribution à la question de l’innervation des chromatophores chez Octopus vulgaris. Archives néerlandaises de Physiol. de l’Homme et des Animaux12, 568-598.
 
1928a - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Notes sur l’innervation du tube digestif des céphalopods. Arch. Zool. expér. gen. 67 Buy Xanax, 69-90.
 
1928b - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Sur l’innervation des vaisseaux sanguins des céphalopodes. Compt. rend. sèan. Soc. Biol. 99, 1015-1016
 
1928 - Sereni Enrico: Sulla innervazione dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 3, 707-711.
 
1928 - Ten Cate Jasper: Contribution a l’innervation des ventouses chez Octopus vulgaris. Arch.néerlandaises de Physiol. de l’Homme et des Animaux 13, 407-422.
(for many decades the basic work on innervation, control and coordination of O.’s arms)
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Fenomeni fisiologici consecutivi alla sezione dei nervi nei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 3, 1304ff.
 
1929a - Young John Zachary: Fenomeni istologici consecutivi alla sezione dei nervi nei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 4, 741ff.
 
1929b - Young John Zachary: Sopra un nuovo organo dei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 4, 1022-1025.
(discovery of the epistellar body)
 
1930 - Sereni Enrico: La giunzione mio-neurale nei cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 5.
 
1930 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbensinn und Anpassung der Körperfarbe an die Umgebung bei Tintenfischen. Nachrichten d. Gesell. Wiss. Göttingen, 1-9.
(color vision and color change)
 
1931 - Sereni Enrico: Sull'analisi fisiologica del sistema nervoso nei cefalopodi. Arch. Zool. 16, 140-167.
 
1932 - Sereni Enrico and John Zachary Young: Nervous degeneration and regeneration in cephalopods. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 12, 173-208.
(the famous work on the regeneration of the stellar nerve)
 
1932 - Buytendijk, Frederik Jacobus Johannes: Das Verhalten von Octopus nach teilweiser Zerstörung des Gehirns. Arch. néerlandaises Physiol. l’Homme Animaux 18,  24-70.
 
1935a - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Paolo Mazza: Recherches sur la physiologie et la pharmacologie du système nerveux autonome. XVIII. Isolement de chloroaurate d’acetylcholine a partir d’un extrait de cellules nerveuses d’Octopus vulgaris. Arch. intern. Physiol. 42, 43-46
 
1935b - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Paolo Mazza: Identification d’acétylcholine extraite des cellules ganglionnaires d’Octopus. Compt. rend. séances Soc. Biol. 120, 246.
(show the presence of acetylcholin in O.’s ganglia)
 
1936 - Thore Sven: Cephalopodenstudien. II. Über die Blutgefäße im Gehirn von Octopus vulgaris und damit im Zusammenhang stehende Fragen. Kungl. Fysiografiska Sällskapets I kund Förhandlingar 6, 1-6.
 
1936 - Young John Zachary: The giant nerve fibres and epistellar body of cephalopods. Quart. J. micr. Sci. 78, 367-386.
 
1938 - Thore Sven: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der vergleichenden Anatomie des Zentralnerven-systems der dibranchiaten Cephalopoden. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 17, 313-370.
 
1939 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel: Sensibilation a l’acètylcholine par dégénérascence nerveuse chez les céphalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 49, 16-19.
 
1939 - Fredéricq Henri: Action cardio-inhibitrice du nerf visceral des céphalopodes: stimoli isolés et sommation de deux stimoli. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg., Cl.Sc. 25, 611-627.
 
1939 - Fredéricq Henri and Zenon-Marcel Bacq: Analyse quantitative des effets cardiaques de la stimulation du nerf visceral des céphalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 49, 490-496.
 
1950 - Kühn Alfred: Über Farbwechsel und Farbensinn von Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 32, 572-598.
(color vision and color change)
 
1954a - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Nouvelles recherches sur le système nerveux du bras des céphalpodes avec des méthodes spécifiques pour le tissu nerveux. Acta Anat. 22, 202-215.
 
1954b - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Il nervo tentacolare del braccio degli “octopoda” non è gangliare e non è unico. Boll. Zool. 21, 1954: 391-394.
 
1955 - Mislin Hans: Die rhytmischen Spontanentladungen im Zentralnervensystem der Tintenfische. Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 307, 58.
(an electroencephalogram of cephalopod brains)
 
1956a - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Nouvelles contributions à la connaissance du système nerveux du tentacle des céphalopodes. II. Cordons ganglionnaires ou moelles périphériques du tentacule d’Octopus. Acta Anat. 26, 165-174.
 
1956b - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Nouvelles contributions a la connaissance du système nerveux du tentacule des céphalopodes. III. Le ganglion sous-acétabulaires et ses rapports avec une pseudo-articulation de la venteuse. Acta Anat. 28, 206-216.
 
1956 - Young John Zachary: The organization within nerve cells. Endeavour 15, 5-19.
 
1957 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: Effects of interference with the vertical lobe on visual discrimination in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. Proc. Roy. Soc. 146, 1-13.
 
1957a - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Sulla presenza di cellule nervose disseminate nella muscolatura somatica di Octopus vulgaris. Nuovi contributi alla conoscenza del sistema nervoso del tentacolo dei cefalopodi. Atti Soc. It. Anat. 17 (Conv.Soc.), 1-7.
 
1957b - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Fibre nervose “a tubo” negli “octopoda” e loro collaterali. Problemi di struttura. Atti Soc .It. Anat. 18.
 
1957c - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Recettori cellulari nella superficie epiteliale prensile della ventosa di Octopus vulgaris. Quad. Anat. Prat. 12, 3-15.
 
1957a  - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The function of the brain of Octopus in tactile discrimination. J. exp. Biol. 34, 131-142.
 
1957b - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The effect of lesions to the vertical and optic lobes on tactile discrimination in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 34, 378-393.
 
1957c - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: Repeated presentation experiments and the function of the vertical lobe in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 34, 469-477.
 
1957 - Young John Zachary: The evolution of organization within the nervous system. Advancem. in Scien. 14, no.54: 1-10.
 
1958 - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Nouvelles contributions a la connaissance du système nerveux du tentacle des céphalopodes. IV. Le patrimoine nerveux de la ventouse de l’Octopus vulgaris. Acta Anat. 34, 3-79.
 
1958 - Wells Martin John: Nerve structure and function. Advancem. in Scien. 57, 449-457.
 
1958a - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The influence of preoperational training on the performance of octopuses following vertical lobe removal. J. exp. Biol. 35, 324-336.
 
1958b - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The effect of vertical lobe removal on the performance of octopuses in retention tests. J. exp. Biol. 35, 337-348.
 
1958a - Young John Zachary: Effect of removal of various amounts of the vertical lobes on visual discrimination by Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 149, 441-462.
 
1958b - Young John Zachary: Responses of untrained octopuses to various figures and the effect of removal of the vertical lobe. Proc. Roy. Soc. 149, 463-483.
 
1958c - Young John Zachary: The structure of cells. Proc. Roy. Instn. 37, 121-138.
 
1959 - Rossi Ferdinando and Pasquale Graziadei: Nouvelles contributions a la connaissance du système nerveux du tentacule des céphalopodes. Basel-New York (S. Karger).
 
1959a - Wells Martin John: Functional evidence for neurone fields representing the individual arms within the central nervous system of Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 36, 501-511.
 
1959b - Wells Martin John: A touch-learning centre in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 36, 590-612. 
 
1960a - Young John Zachary: Unit process in the formation of representation in the memory of Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 153, 1-17.
 
1960b - Young John Zachary: The failures of discrimination learning following the removal of the vertical lobes in Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 153, 18-56.
 
1962a - Graziadei Pasquale: Electron microscopy of some primary receptors in the sucker of Octopus vulgaris. Z. Zellforsch. 64, 510-522
 
1962b - Graziadei Pasquale: Receptors in the suckers of Octopus. Nature 195, 57-59.
 
1962 - Wells Martin John: Brain and Behaviour in Cephalopods. London (Heinemann).
 
1963 - Dilly Peter N., E.G. Gray and John Zachary Young: Electron microscopy of optic nerves and optic lobes of Octopus and Eledone. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, B Biol. Sci. 158, 446-456.
 
1963 - Maldonado Hector: The general amplification function of the vertical lobe in Octopus vulgaris. Ztschr. vergl. Physiol. 47, 215-229.
 
1963 - Rowell C.H. Fraser: Excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the arm of Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 40, 257-270.
 
1964 - Young John Zachary: A model of the brain. Oxford (Clarendon Press).
 
1966 - Rowell C.H. Fraser: Activity of interneurones in the arm of Octopus in response to tactile stimulation. J. exp. Biol. 44, 589-605.

15. Memory, behaviour and ethology

 
1875 - Kollmann J.: Die Cephalopoden in der zoologischen Station des dr. Dohrn. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 26, 1-23.
 
1909 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. Mitteil. Zool. Stat. Neapel 19, 513-761.
 
1910 - Polimanti Osvaldo: Les céphalopodes ont-ils aver mèmoire? Arch. Psych. 10, 84-87.
 
1921 - Monticelli Francesco Saverio: Della particolare maniera d’incubazione delle uova di Octopus vulgaris. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 3, 187-190.
 
1928 - Ten Cate, Jasper: Nouvelles observations sur l’hypnose dite animale. Ètat d’hypnose chez Octopus vulgaris. Arch.néerlandaises de Physiol. de l’Homme et des Animaux 13, 402-406.
(experiments to hypnotize Octopus)
 
1932 - Buytendijk Frederik Jacobus Johannes: Das Verhalten von Octopus nach teilweiser Zerstörung des Gehirns. Arch.néerlandaises de Physiol. de l’Homme et des Animaux 18, 24-70.
 
1938 - R. Fritsch: Das “Bauen” des Octopus und andere Beobachtungen an Cephalopoden. Verhandl. Dt. Zool. Gesell. 119-126.
 
1950 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: The comparative study of learning. Sympos. Soc. Exp. Biol. 4, 432-453
 
1954 - Boycott Brian B.: Learning in Octopus vulgaris and other Cephalopods. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 25, 67-93.
 
1955 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: A memory system in Octopus vulgaris Lam. Proc. Roy. Soc. 143, 449-480.
 
1955 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: Memories controlling attacks on food objects by Octopus vulgaris Lam. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 27, 232-249.
 
1956 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: Reactions on shape in Octopus vulgaris. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 126, 491-547.
 
1956 - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: Tactile discrimination and the behaviour of blind octopuses. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 28,  94-126.
 
1956 - Young John Zachary: Visual responses by Octopus to crabs and other figures before and after training. J. exp. Biol. 33: 709-729.
 
1957a - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The function of the brain of Octopus in tactile discrimination. J. exp. Biol. 34, 131-142.
 
1957b - Wells Martin John and Joyce Wells: The effect of lesions to the vertical and optic lobes on tactile discrimination in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 34,378-393.
 
1958 - Boycott Brian B. and John Zachary Young: Reversal of learned responses in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. Animal Behav. 6, 45-52.
 
1958 - Young John Zachary: Effect of removal of various amounts of the vertical lobes on visual discrimination by Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 149: 441-462.
 
1959 - Dews Peter B.: Some observations on an operant in Octopus. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 2, 57-63.
 
1959 - Wells Martin John: A touch-learning centre in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 36, 590-612.
 
1959 - Young John Zachary: Extinction of unrewarded responses in octopuses. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli  31, 225-247.
 
1960 - Deutsch J. A.: The plexiform zone and shape recognition in the Octopus. Nature 185, 443-446.
 
1960 - Deutsch J. A. and Norman Stuart Sutherland: Theories of shape discrimination in Octopus. Nature 188, 1090-1094.
 
1960 - Sutherland Norman Stuart and William R.A. Muntz: Simultaneous discrimination training and preferred directions of motion in visual discrimination of shape of Octopus vulgaris Lam. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 31, 109-127.
 
1960 - Wells Martin John: Proprioception and visual discrimination of orientation in Octopus. J. exp.  Biol. 37, 489-499.
 
1960a - Young John Zachary: Unit process in the formation of representation in the memory of Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 153, 1-17.
 
1960b - Young John Zachary: The failures of discrimination learning following the removal of the vertical lobes in Octopus. Proc. Roy. Soc. 153,18-56.
 
1960c - Young John Zachary: Learning and discrimination in the Octopus. Biol. Reviews 36, 32-96.
 
1961 - Packard Andrew: Sucker display in Octopus. Nature 190, 736-737.
 
1961 - Wells Martin John: Weight discrimination by Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 38, 127-133.
 
1961 - Young John Zachary: Rates of establishment of representations in the memory of octopuses with and without vertical lobes. J. exp. Biol. 38, 43-60.
 
1962 - Muntz William R.A., Norman Stuart Sutherland and John Zachary Young: Simultaneous shape discrimination training in Octopus after removal of the vertical lobe. J. exp. Biol. 39, 557-566.
 
1962a - Wells Martin John: Brain and Behaviour in Cephalopods. London (Heinemann).
 
1962b - Wells Martin John: Learning and movement in octopuses. Animal Behav. 10, Suppl.1, 115-128.
 
1962 - Mackintosh J.: An investigation of reversal learning in Octopus vulgaris Lam. Quart.J.exp.Psych. 14, 15-22.
 
1963 - Dilly Peter N.: Delayed responses in Octopus. J. exp. Biol. 40,393-401.
 
1963 - Mackintosh Nicholas John and J.Mackintosh: Reversal learning in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck with and without irrelevant cues. Quart. J. exp. Psychol. 15, 236–242.
 
1963a - Maldonado Hector: The positive learning process in Octopus vulgaris. Z. vergl. Physiol. 47, 191-214.
 
1963b - Maldonado Hector: The visual attack system in Octopus vulgaris. J.theoret. Biol. 5, 470-488.
 
1963 - Packard Andrew: The behaviour of Octopus vulgaris. Bull. Inst. Océanograph. Monaco No. spécial, vol. D, 35-49.
 
1963 - Parriss J.R.: Interference in learning and lesions in the visual system of Octopus vulgaris. Behaviour 21(3-4), 233-245.
 
1964 - Maldonado Hector: The control of attack by Octopus. Z. vergl. Physiol. 47, 656-674.
 
1965 - Mackintosh Nicholas John and V. Holgate: Overtraining and the extinction of a discrimination in Octopus.  J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 60, 260–262.
 

16. Anatomy and physiology of the muscles

1892 - Ballowitz Emil: Über den feineren Bau der Muskelsubstanzen. 1. Die Muskalfaser der Cephalopoden. Arch. mikrosk. Anat. 39, 129-324.
 
1905 - Henze Martin: Beiträge zur Muskelchemie der Octopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 43, 477-493.
 
1913 - Polimanti Osvaldo: Ricerche sulla rigidità cadaverica dei cefalopodi. (Octopus vulgaris Lam.). Biol. Centralbl. 33, 272-278.
 
1921 - Quagliariello Gaetano: Recherches chimiques et physico-chimiques sur les muscles et sur le suc musculaire. Note VI. Le suc des muscles d’Octopus. Arch. intern. Physiol. 16, 228.
 
1928 - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Sur la fonction des muscles intrinsèques de l’oiel des céphalopodes. Compt. rend. séan. Soc. Biol. 99, 1161-1163.
 
1936 - Lohmann Karl: Untersuchungen an Octopusmuskulatur. Isolierung und enzymatisches Verhalten von Adenylpyrophosphorsäure und Argininphosphorsäure. Biochem. Zeitg. 286,  28-44. (in 1929 Lohmann discovered ATP and developed a method to isolate it)
 
1957 - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: A study of the cytochromes of Octopus vulgaris Lam. Biochem. J. 66, 303-307.
 
 1961- Schiff Helga: Wirkung des Cephalotoxins und anderer Pharmaka auf die glatte Muskulatur von Octopus vulgaris Lam. und auf das Zentralnervensystem von Squilla mantis L. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 33, 10-19.
 
1962 - Lowy Jack and Barry M. Millman: Mechanical properties of smooth muscles of cephalopod molluscs. J. Physiol. 160(2), 353-363.
(Lowy was one of the leading muscles physiologists of his time)
 

17. Digestion, blood and metabolism

1875 - Kollmann J.: Der Kreislauf des Blutes bei den Lamellibranchiern, den Aplysien und den Cephalopoden. Zeitschr.wiss. Zool. 26, 98-102.
 
1879 - Vigelius Willem Johan: Bijdrage tot de kennis van het excretorisch Systeem der Cephalopod. Dissertation, Leiden.
 
1880 - Vigelius Willem Johan: Über das Excretionssystem der Cephalopoden. Niederl. Arch. Zool. 5, 115-206.
 
1881 - Vigelius Willem Johan: Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchung über das sogenannte Pankreas der Cephalopoden. Amsterdam (J. Müller).
 
1895 - Fuchs Sigmund: Beiträge zur Physiologie des Kreislaufs bei den Cephalopoden. Pflüger Arch. Physiol. 60, 173-204.
 
1900a - Fürth Otto von: Über die Eiweisskörper der Kaltblütermuskeln und ihre Beziehung zur Wärmestarre. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 31, 338-352.
 
1900b - Fürth Otto von: Über den Stoffwechsel der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 31, 353-380.
 
1901 - Enriques Paolo: Il fegato dei molluschi e le sue funzioni. Mitteil. Zool. Stat. Neapel 15, 221-407. (also: Arch. ital. biol. 37, 1902)
(Enrique’s doctoral thesis)
 
1901 - Henze Martin: Zur Kenntnis des Hämocyanins. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 33, 370-384. (the blood of Octopus contains about 9% hemocyanine)
 
1904 - Henze Martin: Zur Kenntnis des Hämocyanins. 2. Mitteilung. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 43, 290-298.
 
1906 - A. Falloise: Contribution à la physiologie comparée de la digestion. La digestion chez les cephalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 3, 282-305.
 
1908 - Henze Martin: Chemische Untersuchungen an Octopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 55, 433-444.
 
1910 - Naef Adolf: Zur vergleichenden Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Blutgefäßsystems der Cephalopoden. Zool. Anz. 36, 316-329.
 
1913 - Grimpe Georg: Das Blutgefäßsystem der dibranciaten Cephalopoden. 1.Octopoda. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 104, 539-621.
 
1913 - Polimanti Osvaldo: Sui rapporti tra peso del corpo e ritmo respiratorio in Octopus vulgaris Lam. Zeitschr. allg. Physiol. 15, 1913: 449-455.
 
1916 - Quagliariello Gaetano: Ricerche chimicofisiche sui liquidi animali. Sulla reazione del sangue degli animali marini. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 21-29.
 
1924 - Winterstein Hans: Über die chemische Regulierung der Atmung bei den Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 2, 315-328.
(on oxygen comsumption)
 
1928 - Alexandrowicz Jerzy Stanislav: Sur l’innervation des vaisseaux sanguins des céphalopodes. Compt. rend. sèan. Soc. Biol. 99, 1015-1016.
 
1928 - Sereni Enrico: Un preparato per la circolazione crociata negli octopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 3, 1304-1309.
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Metodi per la circolazione crociata nei cefalopodi. (Note di tecnica per le ricerche sugli animali marini.) Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 9,293-315.
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Correlazioni umorali nei cefalopodi (abstract of a communication to the 13th International Physiological Congress). Amer. J. Physiol. 90,  512.
 
1932 - Laporta Michele: Sulla costituzione dell’emocianina di Octopus. Nota. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 7, 1-3. (also: Rocca San Casciano (Stab. Tip. L. Cappelli) 1933)
(on haemocyanins)
 
1936 - Thore Sven: Cephalopodenstudien. II. Über die Blutgefäße im Gehirn von Octopus vulgaris und damit im Zusammenhang stehende Fragen. Kungl. Fysiografiska Sällskapets I kund Förhandlingar 6, 1-6.
 
1938 - Mitolo Michele: Di un particolare riflesso cardiaco nei cefalopodi. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 17, 34-52.
 
1938 - Wolvekamp H.P.: Über den Sauerstoff-Transport durch Hämocyanin von Octopus vulgaris Lam. und Sepia officinalis L. Zeitschr. vergl. Physiol. 25, 541-547.
 
1950 - Mislin, Hans: Nachweis einer reflektorischen Regulierung des peripheren Kreislaufs bei den Cephalopoden. Experientia 6, 467-468.
 
1951 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Ghiretti: Vasomotor phenomena in cephalopods. J. Physiol. 113, 525-527.
 
1955 - Giuditta Antonio: Sulla distribuzione del Fe e del Cu nelle diverse frazioni cellulari del fegato di Octopus vulgaris. Tesi sperimentale: 1-58.
 
1956 - De Wilde J.: Koordinationen im Gefäßsystem von Octopus vulgaris. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 28, 259-366.
 
1957 - Bidder Anne M.: Evidence for an absorptive function of the “liver” of Octopus vulgaris Lam. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 29, 139-150.
 
1957a - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: A study of the cytochromes of Octopus vulgaris Lam. Biochem. J. 66, 303-307.
 
1957b - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Contenuto di flavine e sensibilità al cianuro e all’ossido di carbonio dei tessuti di Octopus vulgaris (Lam.). Rend. Acc. Naz. Lincei 22, 667-673.
 
1957c - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: I citocromi dei cefalopodi. Rend. Acc. Naz. Lincei 22, 753-760.
 
1957d - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Il sistema fenolasi-chinone reduttasi dei cefalopodi. Rend. Acc. Naz. Lincei 23, 73-77.
 
1958 - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Pathways of terminal respiration in marine invertebrates. I. The respiratory system in cephalopods. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 52, 389-430.
 
1962 - Ghiretti Francesco: Hemerythrin and hemocyanin. In: Osamu Hayaishi: Oxygenases. New York (Academic Press), 517-553.
 
1963 - Rocca E. and Francesco Ghiretti: Ricerche sulle emocianine, VII: Sulla capacità dell’emocianina di Octopus vulgaris di legare il biossido di carbonio. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sper. 39, 2075-2077.
 
1966 - Nixon Marion: Changes in body weight and intake of food by Octopus vulgaris. J. Zool. 150, 1-9.
 

18. Octopus’s poison

1892 - Rawitz Bernhard: Über den feineren Bau der hinteren Speicheldrüse der Cephalopoden. Arch. mikrosk. Anat. 39, 596-611.
 
1895 - Krause Rudolf: Die Speicheldrüse der Cephalpoden. Centralbl. Physiol. 7, 273-277.
(Composition and fibrinolytic effect of the salivary)
 
1897 - Krause Rudolf: Über Bau und Funktion der hinteren Speicheldrüse der Octopoden. Sitzungsber. kgl. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 51, 1085-1098.
 
1897 - Hyde Ida H.: Beobachtungen über das Sekret der sogenannten Speicheldrüse von Octopus macropus. Zeitschr.Biol. 35, 459-477.
 
1900 - Bottazzi Filippo and Paolo Enriques: Sulle proprietà osmotiche delle ghiandole salivari posteriori dell’Octopus macropus, nel riposo e in seguito all’attività secretiva. Volume pubbl. in onore di L. Luciani. Milano (Soc.Editr.Libr.).
 
1906 - Henze Martin: Chemisch-physiologische Studien an den Speicheldrüsen der Kephalopoden. Das Gift und die stickstoffhaltigen Substanzen des Sekretes. Centralbl. Physiol. 19, 493.
 
1909 - Lo Bianco Salvatore: Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del Golfo di Napoli. 3a edizione. Mitteil. ZSN 19, 513-761
(includes notions on the paralysing effect of the posterior salivary gland)
 
1909 - Baglioni Silvestro: Zur Kenntnis der physiologischen Wirkung des Kephalopoden-giftes. Zeitschr. Biol. 52, 130-138.
 
1913 - Martin Henze: p-Oxyphenyläthylamin, das Speicheldrüsengift der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 87, 51-58.
 
1916 - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 1, 59-146.
 
1918a - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. II. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 2, 69-148.
 
1918b - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. Nota I. Rend. R. Acc. Lincei s.5/v.27, 191-196.
 
1918c - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. Nota II. Rend. R. Acc. Lincei s.5/v.27, 227-250.
 
1920a - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. Nota III. Rend. R. Acc. Lincei s.5/v.30, fasc.1.
 
1920b - Bottazzi Filippo: Ricerche sulla ghiandola salivare posteriore dei cefalopodi. Nota IV. Attività secretiva della ghiandola in varie condizioni sperimentali. Rend. R. Acc. Lincei s.5/v.30, 9-12.
 
1921 - Bottazzi Filippo: Recherches sur la glande salivaire postérieure de l’Octopus macropus. Arch. intern. Physiol. 18, 311-331.
 
1924 - Bottazzi Filippo and Gino Bergami: Nuove ricerche sul veleno della “saliva” di Octopus macropus. Arch. Scien. Biol. 6, 74-93.
 
1929 - Sereni Enrico: Sulla funzione delle ghiandole salivari posteriori dei Cefalopodi. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 4, 749ss.
 
1950 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel: Isolement et perfusion des glandes salivaires postérieurs des céphalopodes octopodes. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. s.5/v.36, 756-766.
(also: Arch. intern. Physiol. 59, 273-287)
 
1951 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Ghiretti: La sécrétion externe et interne des glandes salivaires postérieures des céphalopodes octopodes. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. 37, 79-102.
(also: Arch. intern. Physiol. 59, 288-314)
 
1952 - Ghiretti Francesco: Les excitants chimiques de la sécrétion salivaire chez les céphalopodes octopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 61, 10-21.
 
1953 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Ghiretti: Physiologie des glandes salivaires postérieurs des céphalopodes octopodes isolées et perfusées in vitro. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 24, 267-277.
 
1959 - Ghiretti Francesco: Cephalotoxin: the crab-paralysing agent of the posterior salivary glands of cephalopods. Nature 183(25 April), 1192-1193.
 
1960 - Ghiretti Francesco: Toxicity of octopus saliva against crustaces. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 90, 1960: 726-741.
 
1964 - Ghiretti Francesco: Biochemie der Giftstoffe von Meerestieren. Angew. Chemie 76, 982-988.
 

19. Biochemichal studies on Octopus (general)

1900a - Lindemann Wlodzimierz: Über die Wirkung des Phosphors und des Pulegams auf die Cephalopoden. Beitr. pathol. Anat. allg. Pathol. 27, 484-490.
 
1900b - Lindemann Wlodzimierz: Urämie bei Cephalopoden. Beitr. pathol. Anat. allg. Pathol. 27, 491-493.
 
1901 - Henze Martin: Zur Kenntnis des Hämocyanins. Ztschr. physiol. Chem. 33, 370-384.
 
1901 - Henze Martin: Über ein Vorkommen freier Asparginsäure im thierischen Organismus. Berichte Dt. Chem. Gesell. 34,348-354.
 
1901 - Henze Martin: Über den Kupfergehalt der Cephalopodenleber. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 33, 417-425.
 
1902a - Cohnheim Otto: Weitere Mitteilungen über Eiweissresorption. Versuche an Octopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 35, 396-415.
(part of his pathbreaking studies on digestion and the discovery of erepsin)
 
1902b - Cohnheim Otto: Der Mechanismus der Darmresorption bei den Octopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 35, 416-418.
(part of his pathbreaking studies on digestion and the discovery of erepsin)
 
1904 - Henze Martin: Zur Kenntnis des Hämocyanins. 2. Mitteilung. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 43, 290-298.
 
1908 - Henze Martin: Chemische Untersuchungen an Octopoden. Zeitschr.physiol.Chem. 55, 433-444.
 
1910 - Henze Martin: Über das Vorkommen des Betains bei Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 70, 253-255.
 
1913 - Henze Martin: p-Oxyphenyläthylamin, das Speicheldrüsengift der Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 87, 51-58.
 
1914 - Henze Martin: Über das Vorkommen des Trimethylaminoxyds bei Cephalopoden. Zeitschr. physiol. Chem. 91, 230-232.
 
1916 - Quagliarello Gaetano: Ricerche chimico-fisiche sui liquidi animali. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 1, 21-30.
 
1920 - Quagliarello Gaetano: Ricerche chimiche e chimico-fisiche sull’emocianina. Nota I. L’indice di refrazione dell’emocianina. Arch. Scienz. Biol. 1, 246.
 
1932 - Laporta Michele: Sulla costituzione dell’emocianina di Octopus. Nota. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 7, 1-3.
 
1936 - Lohmann Karl: Untersuchungen an Octopodenmuskulatur. Isolierung und enzymatisches Verhalten von Adnylpyrophophorsäure. Biochem. Zeitg. 286, 28-44.
(in 1929 Lohmann discovered ATP and developed a method to isolate it)
 
1935 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Paolo Mazza: Recherches sur la physiologie et la pharmacologie du système nerveux autonome. XVIII. Isolement de chloroaurate d’acetylcholine a partir d’un extrait de cellules nerveuses d’Octopus vulgaris. Arch. intern. Physiol. 42, 43-46.
 
1935 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Francesco Paolo Mazza: Identification d’acétylcholine extraite des cellules ganglionnaires d’Octopus. Compt. rend. séances Soc. Biol. 120, 246.
 
1937 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel and Vladislav Kruta: Action de l’hémolymphe des invertébrés sur le ventricule médian des céphalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 44, 216-218.
 
1939 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel: Sensibilation a l’acètylcholine par dégénérascence nerveuse chez les Céphalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 49, 16-19.
 
1952 - Bacq Zenon-Marcel, P. Fischer and Francesco Ghiretti: Action de la 5-hydroxytryptamine chez les céphalopodes. Arch. intern. Physiol. 60, 165-171.
 
1955 - Giuditta Antonio: Sulla distribuzione del Fe e del Cu nelle diverse frazioni cellulari del fegato di Octopus vulgaris. Tesi sperimentale: 1-58.
 
1957 - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: A study of the cytochromes of Octopus vulgaris Lam. Biochem. J. 66, 303-307.
 
1957 - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: I citocromi dei cefalopodi. Rend. Acc. Naz.Lincei 22, 1957: 753-760.
 
1957a - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Contenuto di flavine e sensibilità al cianuro e all’ossido di carbonio dei tessuti di Octopus vulgaris. Atti Acc. Naz. Lincei 22, 667-673.
 
1957b - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Il sistema fenolasi-chinone reduttase nei cefalopodi. Rend. Acc. Naz. Lincei 23, 73-77.
 
1957 - Zaccheo Damiano and Pasquale Graziadei: Rilievi istochimici sulla cuticola della parete del canale alimentare di un mollusco: Octopus vulgaris. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sper. 33, 1068-1070.
 
1958 - Ghiretti-Magaldi Anna, Antonio Giuditta and Francesco Ghiretti: Pathways of terminal respiration in marine invertebrates. I. The respiratory system in Cephalopods. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 52, 389-430.
 
1958 - Rocca E. and Francesco Ghiretti: Purification and properties of D-glutaminic acid oxidase from Octopus vulgaris. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 77, 336-349.
 
1959 - Farina E: Sulla composizione chimica dei corpi bianchi di Octopus vulgaris. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 35, 826-827.
 
1959 - De Marinis E. and E. Farina: Composti purinici nei cuori branchiali di Octopus vulgaris. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 35, 912-915.
 
1959 - Ghiretti Francesco: Cephalotoxin: the crab-paralysing agent of the posterior salivary glands of cephalopods. Nature 183(25 April), 1192-1193.
 
1961 - Farina Benedetta: Pirimidine nei corpi bianchi di Octopus vulgaris. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sperim. 37, 1703-1705.
 
1961 - Schiff Helga: Wirkung des Cephalotoxins und anderer Pharmaka auf die glatte Muskulatur von Octopus vulgaris Lam. und auf das Zentralnervensystem von Squilla mantis L. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 33, 10-19.
 
1963 - Rocca E.: D-aspartato in Octopus. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sper. 40.
 
1963 - Rocca E. and Francesco Ghiretti: Ricerche sulle emocianine, VII: Sulla capacità dell’emocianina di Octopus vulgaris di legare il biossido di carbonio. Boll. Soc. It. Biol. Sper. 39, 2075-2077.
 
1964 - Ghiretti Francesco: Biochemie der Giftstoffe von Meerestieren. Angew. Chemie 76, 1964: 982-988. 1964 Ghiretti Francesco and U. Violante: Ricerche sul metabolismo del rame in Octopus vulgaris. Boll. zool. 31, 1081-1092.

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